Thursday, June 11, 2020

Alternative Dispute Resolution - Free Essay Example

Alternative Dispute Resolution Scenario: The Herbert City Council owns a Olympic Pool and Training Centre which is managed by a Mr Samuel Phlipper. Until February 18, 2011 the facility had been used by both the Under Water Hockey Federation of Australia and the National Synchronized Swimmers Association. This has been possible because, up to now, the national teams of the respective associations have not made heavy use of the only available time in which the pool is closed to the public, that is, from 6:00am to 8:00am. Both groups have now decided to use Herbert as the base for their Games training programmes and, as a consequence, they are claiming the right to the full two hour session every day. Both parties assert that priority usage agreements have been signed with the Herbert City Council. Mr Phlipper is not willing to extend the hours at which the pool is open because this would incur excessive . overtime costs and any variation of hours would not only inconvenience him but would impact on the use of the pool by the general public. In addition to the dispute over the use of the pool itself, the two groups have become increasingly antagonistic. The all male Under Water Hockey Squad objects to the bee-bop music played by the synchronized swimmers and claim that discarded hair pins and dislodged nose pegs left on the floor of the pool have caused the hockey players to sustain minor injuries during practice. For their part the women swimmers have taken offence to pictures of scantily clad females which have been placed in communal areas by the Hockey Squad and at the frequent remarks with sexual innuendo made by the Hockey Squad members. The men also have a record of leaving equipment around the pool and expecting the women to clean up at the end of the training sessions. Question 1 Identify the parties issues and interests. The two teams nominate a representative to attempt a resolution of the issues through direct negotiation. The President of UWHF, Chuck Fitzpatrick, is concerned not to appear sexist, and is very keen to appease the womens team. The representative of the non-hierarchical swimming squad, Ms Georgia Douglas, has been democratically elected because she is a person who can be relied on to hold firm to an agreed position. She does not intend to move from her bottom line. Her team must be guaranteed priority usage and all the offensive material must be removed from the pool complex. This factual matrix revolves around a dispute between the key parties, the Under Water Hockey Federation of Australia, the National Synchronized Swimmers Association and the Herbert City Council and its manager Mr Samuel Phlipper. It arises over the two teams assertion to use the pool in the two hour time slot that it is closed to the public, each claiming a contractual priority right to the pool at this time. Additionally, just as with most disputes, alongside the major issue there are secondary issues arising either directly out of the major issue or as a result of the antagonism between parties. These include having the pool closed for more than two hours in the morning [Mr Phlippers concern]; the bee-bop music and discarded hairpins and dislodged nose pegs [The Hockey Squads concerns]; the pictures of scantily clad women placed in communal areas, the sexual innuendo and leaving pool equipment to be put away by the ladies [concerns by the Swimming team about the mens beh aviour] and last but not least the antagonism between the teams and the attitude of the Swimming team and their representative to the Dispute Resolution process. The pools public clientele are also a party, albeit minor. Though they do not have an issue as such, they none the less have an interest which should not be completely ignored. The aim here as with any form of negotiation, is to reach a solution as satisfactory as possible for all, within the attendant resource boundaries. Quintessentially, [N]egotiating is a basic means of getting what you want from others. It is back and forth communication designed to reach an agreement when you and the other side have some interests that are shared and others that are opposed.1 Note that the operative word here is interests. That is, not what the parties want, but why they want it. Aside from a concern for the public interest noted already, Mr Phlippers personal interest is in avoiding excessive overtime fees and the inconven ience of having the pool open for longer. The Under Water hockey Squads interests are impliedly, a desire to maintain an attitude and behaviour of male superiority and /or the area as totally their own, avoid minor injuries and it would seem common sense that Chuck [as the teams President] would have an interest in maintaining the Squads reputation and/or want damage control on behalf of the Squad. The Synchronised Swimmers interests are not to have to deal with the Hockey Squads sexist attitude and behaviour and expectations. Just as with the President of the UWHF, the representative of the Swimming Squad also has an interest however her interest is in being positional. That is, she is focused on making sure that a certain outcome is achieved rather than in fulfilling the interests of the team. This is clear since it is stated that Ms Georgia Douglas, has been democratically elected because she is a person who can be relied on to hold firm to an agreed position. She does not intend to move from her bottom line.2 As mentioned above, this creates a tangential issue, interalia, because of the difference in power that can be created by the differing approaches to the negotiation. As noted earlier, a vital, almost inherent component to any successful negotiation is a concentration on the parties interests. Mackie in his book reviewing different negotiation strategies notes clearly that although there are different personality types resulting in different negotiating strategies and some more productive than others, position bargaining really has no place in negotiation . 3 Ineffective competitives, however were described as irritating, headstrong, unreasonable, arrogant and obstructive, lacking the perceptiveness and realism of the effective competitiveness à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" The problem of the ineffective/competitive is relatively easy to define: he is obnoxious'. 4 Question 2 Advise Chuck on negotiation strategy and how he might deal with Georgia. The negotiators make little progress, so the two representatives decide to request a meeting with Samuel Phlipper. The sticking point appears to be that both teams must have 1  ½ hours each in order to prepare, train and shower afterwards. A brief discussion of the different types of negotiation techniques available to Chuck in the circumstances, with their possible outcomes and recommendations, will be undertaken, in order to more thoroughly advise Chuck on the strategy he might use to deal with Georgia. There is no one and only way to negotiate. Since personalities differ, negotiation styles and their adjunct strategies will also differ. Whether shy, competitive, demanding, accommodating, compromising, bullying or retiring, all of these will affect the way in which we deal with others and so too the way we negotiate. In essence however, these can be boiled down to two main approaches as very briefly alluded to earlier, the competitive adversary and the co-operative problem solver.5 Following the style of the problem solver, the Principled Negotiation concept and its accordant strategies, which arguably changed the landscape in the area of Alternative Dispute Resolution, was introduced by Fisher and Ury i n the 1980s.6 This system has been tested and found to have a higher success rate with 59% of negotiators using this manner being effective whilst effectiveness with the adversarial model was only 25%.7 Furthermore, a follow up study found time the effectiveness of adversarial bargaining continuing to decline, being only 9% at the time the later study was conducted a decade later. 8 There are five founding principles to this approach. The first step is to deal with the problem, not the people. The parties should direct any frustrations at the problem not each other and work together rather than being distracted by misdirected emotions and communication. The problem should be the bad guy not the other party. The second and arguably most important point is, as was already explained, looking at the parties interests à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" what is behind what they ask for? Concentrating on this allows step three to almost flow naturally, that is, brainstorming to arrive at win/win situations instead of demanding certain outcomes. The fourth element is important to ensure that all parties are confident that the outcome was fair and this can be achieved through solutions based on objective standards. Lastly but by no means least is the BATNA à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å" Best Alternative To a Negotiated Outcome. This simply means doing the requisite preparation and knowing exactly what your bottom line is before you go in. As opposed to a positional stance, this is not what is brought in at the start and demanded but rather something each party is aware that beyond this point any agreement would be unworkable. Given the success rate of the problem solving approach to negotiation, Chuck should normally be advised to take this approach. However, despite its success rate and as mentioned previously, sometimes there are obstacles, and in this case it is Georgias adversarial approach. Numerous authors who commend the work of Fisher and Ury none the less state that dif ferent strategies need to be employed when a co-operative negotiator must deal with an adversarial party, making the playing field uneven.9 It is the opinion of this author that Principled Negotiation should still form the foundational strategy of Chucks approach since ultimately this technique also aims to ensure satisfaction as much as is possible for both sides, and as such is most likely to mean a more enduring solution. However rarely are negotiations purely co-operative and to do so here is, paradoxically, likely to be naÃÆ' ¯ve and counter-productive. 10 Therefore it is recommended that some further strategies also be employed. Wade points out in his article on strategies for difficult negotiations that the party making the first offer and the content of that offer are two very vital considerations. 11 It is suggested here that Chucks desire to appease the womens team, well intentioned as it is, not be allowed to result in Chucks premature agreement. This is piv otal; a certain amount of delay may be necessary to allow room for thought. Given that they are both in training, it seems likely that a competition of some sort is approaching for both teams and therefore possibly suggesting to Georgia that her unwillingness to even discuss her position could cost them both a great deal of time, may also help. McLean when discussing difficult people posits that [A] helpful strategy is to agree with the superficial complaint but then direct attention to the matter of costs and that perhaps there is something to be gained by compromise. 12 McLean also notes that it might also be important for Chuck to consider a way of allowing Georgia to save face without letting go of anything that falls below the teams bottom line.13 Since the sticking point is the actual time required to use the pool it seems that the Under Water Squad may be willing to amend the offensive behaviour and this could be used by Chuck as a sign of compromise and allows G eorgia the opportunity to show she has still managed to at least secure part of the girls demands. 14 Question 3 Samuel is faced with a number of impasses and at least one difficult person. Identify them and suggest strategies he might use at the meeting. The Impasses and People The impasses seem to ultimately be that both parties need use of the pool for at least an hour and a half but it is only open for 2 hours each morning. A change in the behaviour of the mens team and the nose pegs, hairpins and bee-bop music of the womens team were an issue but these seem to be negotiable since we have been told that the sticking point is the time for use of the pool so it seems these are no longer impasses. Opening the pool for longer will affect Samuel and the public interest and incur excessive overtime costs and though this is not a major impasse, it none the less still needs consideration and last but not least as pointed out earlier, Georgia is demanding that her team have priority use of the pool making her a more difficult person to deal with. The Strategy Samuel is brought in for a meeting with the two teams. His strategy will be largely determined by his role. If we are to take this scenario at face value, then Samuel would not be considered a neutral party since he does have an interest in and to a great extent, power over, the outcome of the dispute. Therefore the most obvious role of just mediator is highly unlikely. NADRAC,15 the main governmental body overseeing Alternative Dispute Resolution in Australia explains that Mediationis a process in which [T]he mediator has no advisory or determinative role in regard to the content of the dispute or the outcome of its resolution , but may advise on or determine the process of mediation whereby resolution is attempted. 16 Therefore Samuel is most likely to be acting in a hybrid process described by NADRAC as follows, Combined or hybrid dispute resolution processes are processes in which the dispute resolution practitioner plays multiple roles. For example, in conciliati on and in conferencing, the dispute resolution practitioner may facilitate discussions, as well as provide advice on the merits of the dispute. In hybrid processes, such as med-arb, the practitioner first uses one process (mediation) and then a different one ( arbitration). The strategy therefore is likely to be one of combined mediation, negotiation and quazi adjudication, the last role arising out of the power he has to determine the other two parties contractual rights giving him the power essentially to adjudicate the matter. In Capolingua v Phylum, costs were not awarded to the winning party despite the rule that costs follow the event because of the winning partys unnecessary protraction of the matter. 17 One important factor about the inclusion of Samuel and his adjunct authority is his ability to control the outcome by taking Georgies power to insist on her position out of her hand whilst simultaneously helping her save face. Samuels best plan considering the inter est of both parties could be to try to negotiate separately with each party first to see if they are willing to do alternate days, which would avoid Samuel having to keep the pool open for longer with its consequent problems. Should this fail, he could suggest the option that the pool be open for an extra hour at the end of every day for the public, in place of keeping it open for the extra hour required in the morning to accommodate both parties. This would be on the basis that both parties are willing to share the extra cost and inconvenience of having the pool open and possibly opening it themselves. As noted earlier, if no agreement could be reached, Samuel is in opposition to make a final determinative decision. References 1 Karl J Mackie, A Handbook of Dispute Resolution: ADR in Action (Routledge London, 2002) 2 Directly quoted from the Question. 3 Karl J Mackie, A Handbook of Dispute Resolution: ADR in Action (Routledge London, 2002) Ch 7 4 Karl J Mackie, A Handbook of Dispute Resolution: ADR in Action (Routledge London, 2002) 77-3 5 Charles B Craver, Negotiation Styles: The Impact on Bargaining Transactions, (2003), 58-APR Dispute Resolution Journal 48. 6 Roger Fisher and William Ury, Getting to YES Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co, 1981. 7 Charles B Craver, Negotiation Styles: The Impact on Bargaining Transactions, (2003), 58-APR Dispute Resolution Journal 48, 51. 8 Charles B Craver, Negotiation Styles: The Impact on Bargaining Transactions, (2003), 58-APR Dispute Resolution Journal 48, 52. 9 Charles B Craver, Negotiation Styles: The Impact on Bargaining Transactions, (2003), 58-APR Dispute Resolutio n Journal 48; Bryan M Downie, When negotiations Fail: Causes of Breakdown and Tactics for Breaking the Stalemate, [1991] Apr Negotiation Journal 175; Howard Gadlin, Careful Maneuvers: Mediating Sexual Harassment, [1991] Apr Negotiation Journal 139. 10 Karl J Mackie, A Handbook of Dispute Resolution: ADR in Action (Routledge London, 2002) 77-3 11 Wade, JH The Last Gap (Gasp) in Negotiations. Why it is important? How can it be crossed? (1994) Bepress paper, 4 https://works.bepress.com/john_wade/9 12 McLean, Duncan, Strategies and Methods in Mediation and Communication with High Conflict People (2013) High conflict behaviours. Paper 1, 15/24 https://www.civiljustice.info/highconflict/1 13 McLean, Duncan, Strategies and Methods in Mediation and Communication with High Conflict People (2013) High conflict behaviours. Paper 1, 15/24 https://www.civiljustice.info/highconflict/1 14 Bryan M Downie, When negotiations Fai l: Causes of Breakdown and Tactics for Breaking the Stalemate, [1991] Apr Negotiation Journal 175 15 National Alternative Dispute Resolution Advisory Council. 16 National Alternative Dispute Resolution Advisory Council, Dispute Resolution Terms: The use of terms in (alternative)dispute resolution (September 03)Australian Government Attorney Generals Department, 9 https://www.ag.gov.au/LegalSystem/AlternateDisputeResolution/Documents/NADRAC%20Publications/Dispute%20Resolution%20Terms.PDF 17 Capolingua v Phylum Pty Ltd (1991) 5 WAR 137

Tuesday, May 26, 2020

The Advantages of Using AP Lit Essay Samples and Poems

The Advantages of Using AP Lit Essay Samples and PoemsThe idea of taking AP Lit essay samples and poems from the site is a wonderful way to put some extra information into your college application essays. This practice makes you really work hard in your writing and saves you the time spent on filling out papers and submissions. You are going to be surprised at how much you are going to be able to write when you take advantage of this practice, which is an effective way to practice your style and format for the AP test.The AP test is going to present you with about fifty-five pages of content, but it's going to present you with a rather long essay that is going to use examples to give a feeling of your own experience. So, what you will need to do is focus on the most important issues and make sure you emphasize them when it comes to the information that you're going to have to write about.Take the time to look at some of the AP Lit essay samples and poems that are available for you to try. Most of the time, they are quite well written and offer examples that are being used in many colleges around the world. You'll find that you can actually see some examples and pictures of what you will have to write about so that you can make sure that your paragraph flows smoothly.By using these sample essays, you are going to be able to get a feel for the type of topics that you will be writing about. You'll also be able to do research materials that will be able to make you more knowledgeable about the subject of your writing.The stories that are included in the poetry also provide some valuable information on the writer and his or her personality. Also, these poems can give you a more personal view of your future readers so that you won't have to worry about what they think of your writing.Remember that the poetry that you are going to be choosing is going to be in your own style. You will be able to make your own style statement and you will be able to put some of your ow n experiences into your writings.If you have decided to use the AP Lit essay samples and poems that are available for you to use, just remember that you are going to be allowed to save yourself a lot of time when it comes to writing your college essays. Then, you'll be able to focus on your academic writing and the topics that you want to write about.

Sunday, May 17, 2020

Tlcs Wild Child; the Story of Feral Children Essay

The TLC documentary Wild Child; the Story of Feral Children is a documentary that tells the few of many stories of children that have turned to a feral lifestyle due to parental negligence. Feral, meaning undomesticated, is the used term to describe these children because of the actions they exhibit. The accounts in this documentary range from a young girl who â€Å"was raised with the wolves† per say, but instead with her dog, to a little boy who was abandoned in a Ukrainian loft and provided the town strays with food and shelter in return for protection from them and other strays. In some of the cases detailed in this video, these children were far too old by the time they were discovered and missed an extremely crucial time frame in which†¦show more content†¦Growing up I had always been a quicker reader than most. I possessed a vocabulary more advanced than those around me, and all throughout high school I was reading college level material and even had a teacher tell me that some people are too smart for high school and should be able to go straight to college, and that I was one of those people. I have never been more than an average test taker, but I can learn quickly and now I push my younger brother and sister to do the same. When born, my little brother had no signs of anything being wrong with him. However, about the time he should have began talking, he was not. He did not make a sound or anything. Concerned, we took him to a doctor and he was diagnosed with apraxia, a condition in which the brain does not communicate with the mouth to make movements or sounds for speech. Being told he may never speak, my family quickly started learning sign language and tried teaching my younger brother ASL as well as speech. In time, our efforts must have paid off because he does not stop talking now and you would never know he had the condition in the first place. This video really opened my eyes about how crucial it was that we teach him quickly, and we did it without knowing if we did not, he really would never learn. While the crucial learning stage in my life may be over, I now have had the joy of having my

Saturday, May 16, 2020

Inventors of the Modern Computer

In November of 1971, a company called Intel publicly introduced the worlds first single-chip microprocessor, the Intel 4004 (U.S. Patent #3,821,715), invented by Intel engineers Federico Faggin, Ted Hoff, and Stanley Mazor. After the invention of integrated circuits  revolutionized computer design, the only place to go was down -- in size that is. The Intel 4004 chip took the integrated circuit down one step further by placing all the parts that made a computer think (i.e. central processing unit, memory, input and output controls) on one small chip. Programming intelligence into inanimate objects had now become possible. The History of Intel In 1968, Robert Noyce and Gordon Moore were two unhappy engineers working for the Fairchild Semiconductor Company who decided to quit and create their own company at a time when many Fairchild employees were leaving to create start-ups. People like Noyce and Moore were nicknamed the Fairchildren. Robert Noyce typed himself a one-page idea of what he wanted to do with his new company, and that was enough to convince San Francisco venture capitalist Art Rock to back Noyces and Moores new venture. Rock raised $2.5 million dollars in less than 2 days. Intel Trademark The name Moore Noyce was already trademarked by a hotel chain, so the two founders decided upon the name Intel for their new company, a shortened version of Integrated Electronics. Intels first money-making product was the 3101 Schottky bipolar 64-bit static random access memory (SRAM) chip. One Chip Does the Work of Twelve In late 1969, a potential client from Japan called Busicom, asked to have twelve custom chips designed. Separate chips for keyboard scanning, display control, printer control and other functions for a Busicom-manufactured calculator. Intel did not have the manpower for the job but they did have the brainpower to come up with a solution. Intel engineer, Ted Hoff decided that Intel could build one chip to do the work of twelve. Intel and Busicom agreed and funded the new programmable, general-purpose logic chip. Federico Faggin headed the design team along with Ted Hoff and Stanley Mazor, who wrote the software for the new chip. Nine months later, a revolution was born. At 1/8th inch wide by 1/6th inch long and consisting of 2,300 MOS (metal oxide semiconductor) transistors, the baby chip had as much power as the ENIAC, which had filled 3,000 cubic feet with 18,000 vacuum tubes. Cleverly, Intel decided to buy back the design and marketing rights to the 4004 from Busicom for $60,000. The next year Busicom went bankrupt, they never produced a product using the 4004. Intel followed a clever marketing plan to encourage the development of applications for the 4004 chip, leading to its widespread use within months. The Intel 4004 Microprocessor The 4004 was the worlds first universal microprocessor. In the late 1960s, many scientists had discussed the possibility of a computer on a chip, but nearly everyone felt that integrated circuit technology was not yet ready to support such a chip. Intels Ted Hoff felt differently; he was the first person to recognize that the new silicon-gated MOS technology might make a single-chip CPU (central processing unit) possible. Hoff and the Intel team developed such an architecture with just over 2,300 transistors in an area of only 3 by 4 millimeters. With its 4-bit CPU, command register, decoder, decoding control, control monitoring of machine commands and interim register, the 4004 was one heck of a little invention. Todays 64-bit microprocessors are still based on similar designs, and the microprocessor is still the most complex mass-produced product ever with more than 5.5 million transistors performing hundreds of millions of calculations each second - numbers that are sure to be outdated fast.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Symptoms And Treatment Of Diabetes Essay - 1270 Words

Student: Vu Le SOAPE NOTE (Diabetes Case I) Subjective: 1. Chief Complaint: CO is a 57 year old white man who comes into the clinic with a chief complaint of feeling weak. 2. History of Present Illness: The patient comes into his primary care physician office complaining of feeling weak. He tells the doctor that he feels tired after doing normal activities; as well as, feeling more thirsty and hungry. Also, he said that he has noticed that his has gained about ten pounds within this past half year. Objective: 1. Past Medical History: †¢ Hypertension for the past 20 years †¢ Osteoarthritis for the past eight years †¢ Asthma for the past 25 years †¢ Obesity for the past 30 years 2. Family History: The patient’s mother has diabetes and is still alive, his father medical and past history is unknown, and he has no siblings. 3. Social History: The patient’s occupation is working in construction. He states that he has been a smoker for ten years now with about one pack per day intake. 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The Legend Of Founding Of The Kingdom Of Asterialune

Prologue This is a tale from a distant past. The legend of founding of the Kingdom of Asterialune. Asterialune is where you will find desire and hatred, divided into seven territories. Where you are standing on the shore of they’re unique ocean, the waters stretches far as you can see, to the horizon. It changes color with the light and the color of the sky, from green to blue to gray. And then, in twilight, you cannot tell the ocean from the sky. Ripples and waves unceasingly flow toward you, eventually break into foam, creep up to your feet and slide back. The ocean makes a sound like water surging and retreating. There is a scent of the salt water in the air, a smell like no other. This is where mermaids, aquatic animals, water†¦show more content†¦The mountains at a distance and rising hills before us. Those are the fairies, elves, dwarves, little people and other earthy mythological creatures. The two unlike territories the heaven and the underworld. In the heaven, all tranquil dissimilar animals together, beautiful pale skin with feathery pure wings roaming around the thick covering the bare sky with it s wings like it s never been wings, but a conquering soul travelling across the blue sky. Then, the underworld, full of thick vapors consuming your sight and prickly thorns on the dark path. Lastly, a land where humans like us live. Farming, sewing, writing, painting, selling goods and little kids cycling or running through the streets. All of these territories united all together, no matter what. Until chaos strikes like a meteor and all the union was burned into ashes. Long ago, the queen of the celestial gave birth to fraternal twins. Two of them have symbolic birthmarks. Symbolizing the day and the night. The first-born was a girl with a quarter silver sand color hair that glistens like the moon and dark purple eyes like the shade of the night sky. Her blue birthmark was on her right shoulder, a crescent of a moon. The other girl has her hair the shades of the sunlight and eyes like a pink tourmaline gem. The yellow birthmark was on her left shoulder, a crescent of a sun. They’re most of their personalities were different and are like their symbols. Their

Mary Maloney Review free essay sample

Character Analysis of Mary Maloney Lamb to the Slaughter Characterization is an important component in short story writing. In the short story Lamb to the Slaugher written by Roald Dahl, we are introduced to Mary Maloney, a pregnant housewife who recently found out that her husband is going to leave her. Mary develops into a very complex character as the events of the short story unfold. Mary is a typical housewife, waiting on her husband hand and foot. She loves him dearly, but as the short story unfolds, we see that he does not share the same feelings. Mary, unable to handle the rejection, lashes out and kills her husband. We then see Mary’s character transform before our eyes and the once loving, dutiful housewife becomes a very devious, manipulative and cold hearted character. She manages to fool everyone maybe even herself. As the story unfolds, we see Many as a very cold hearted person as she kills her husband in the blink of an eye. We will write a custom essay sample on Mary Maloney Review or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page After her husband has told her he plans to leave her and refuses to let her cook supper for him, Mary strikes out and hits him with a leg of lamb that she had planned to cook for supper. At that point, Many Maloney simply walks up behind him and without any pause she swung the big frozen leg of lamb high in the air and brought it down as hard as she could on the back of his head (Dahl, p. 13). Mary then uses her deviousness to create the next aspect of her character. Mary is also very devious in that she not only kills her husband in cold blood, but she then precedes to create an alibi for herself. She practices her speech in the mirror, and then goes to the grocery store where she is sure the grocer will remember her as a calm, loving wife. She sat down before the mirror, tidied her hair, touched up her lips and face. She tried a smile. It came out rather peculiar. She tried again (Dahl, p. 14). These actions show that she was very clever and manipulative and was already thinking very clear in regard to the events that would follow. Mary is very manipulative in that she is able to create the character of the poor, pregnant wife, whose husband has just been murdered. She is able to convince the police to take pity on her, to mix her a drink and then to even eat the evidence, the leg of lamb that she has left in the oven. Why don’t you eat up that lamb that is in the oven (Dahl, p. 17). These actions show the complex character that Mary Maloney truly is. Throughout the entire story, Mary is a very interesting character. She faces many issues in dealing with her husband’s news that he is leaving her. She reacts based on her instincts and kills her husband and this shows her cold heartedness. In the end she has to create an alibi to cover up her devious crime in which she has to manipulate the police into eating the evidence. Mary is a very unique complex character and she has, through her actions conducted a devious crime in which she will be proven innocent. Through the use of Many Maloney’s character, as well as irony and suspense, the author was able to maintained the interest of the reader throughout the entire short story.